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The gut microbiome and the brain
The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system. (3) Bacterial enzymes may produce neurotoxic metabolites such as D-lactic acid and ammonia. Even beneficial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids may exert neurotoxicity. (4) Gut microbes can produce hormones and neurotransmitters that are identical to those produced by humans. Bacterial receptors for these hormones influence microbial growth and virulence. (5) Gut bacteria directly stimulate afferent neurons of the enteric nervous system to send signals to the brain via the 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 vagus nerve. Through these varied mechanisms, gut microbes shape the architecture of sleep and stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. They influence memory, mood, and cognition and are clinically and therapeutically relevant to a range of disorders, including alcoholism, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and restless legs syndrome. Their role in multiple sclerosis and the neurologic manifestations of celiac disease is being studied. Nutritional tools for altering the gut microbiome therapeutically include changes in diet, probiotics, and prebiotics.
Keywords: D-lactic acid; endotoxin; microbial endocrinology; microbiome; prebiotics; probiotics; short-chain fatty 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 acids; trimethylamine oxide (TMAO).
Clark A, Mach N. Clark A, et al. J Int 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Nov 24;13:43. doi: 10.1186/s12970-016-0155-6. eCollection 2016. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016. PMID: 27924137 Free PMC article. Review.
Mulak A, Bonaz B. Mulak A, et al. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct 7;21(37):10609-20. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i37.10609. World J Gastroenterol. 2015. PMID: 26457021 Free PMC article. Review.
Mayer EA, 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 Tillisch K, Gupta A. Mayer EA, et al. J Clin Invest. 2015 Mar 2;125(3):926-38. doi: 10.1172/JCI76304. Epub 2015 Feb 17. J Clin Invest. 2015. PMID: 25689247 Free PMC article. Review.
Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Dinan TG, et al. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2017 Mar;46(1):77-89. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2016.09.007. Epub 2017 Jan 4. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2017. PMID: 28164854 Review.
Mohajeri MH, Brummer RJM, Rastall RA, Weersma RK, Harmsen HJM, Faas M, Eggersdorfer M. Mohajeri MH, et al. Eur J Nutr. 2018 May;57(Suppl 1):1-14. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1703-4. Eur J Nutr. 2018. PMID: 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 29748817 Free PMC article.
Wozniak H, Beckmann TS, Fröhlich L, Soccorsi T, Le Terrier C, de Watteville A, Schrenzel J, Heidegger CP. Wozniak H, et al. Crit Care. 2022 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 Aug 18;26(1):250. doi: 10.1186/s13054-022-04127-5. Crit Care. 2022. PMID: 35982499 Free PMC article. Review.
Ma XY, Son YH, Yoo JW, Joo MK, Kim DH. Ma XY, et al. Nutrients. 2022 Jul 20;14(14):2975. doi: 10.3390/nu14142975. Nutrients. 2022. PMID: 35889931 Free PMC article.
Anjana, Tiwari SK. Anjana, et al. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022 May 16;12:851140. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.851140. eCollection 2022. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022. PMID: 35651753 Free PMC article. Review.
Jovanovic F, Sudhakar A, Knezevic NN. Jovanovic F, et al. Int J Tryptophan Res. 2022 May 21;15:11786469221099214. doi: 10.1177/11786469221099214. eCollection 2022. Int J Tryptophan Res. 2022. PMID: 35620306 Free PMC article. Review.
Blázquez E, Hurtado-Carneiro V, 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 LeBaut-Ayuso Y, Velázquez E, García-García L, Gómez-Oliver F, Ruiz-Albusac JM, Ávila J, Pozo MÁ. Blázquez 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 这12条期货股票交易制胜法则 E, et al. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 May 9;13:873301. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.873301. eCollection 2022. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022. PMID: 35615716 Free PMC article. Review.
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